The first successful cloning experiment took place in 1885. During this experiment, German scientists were able to successfully clone a sea urchin. Nearly 20 years passed when the Germans had their next big breakthrough in the field. In 1906, the Germans were able to clone the first vertebrate- a salamander! The world, including Germany, became engulfed in world wars and published research didn’t leave Germany again until the 1950’s. There was a 50 year dark ages in this developing scientific field.
In 1950, a team of American scientists managed the first cloned cell transfer. They introduced non-frog cells into a frog. The frog was still a frog, but at the same time- it wasn’t. Thomas and Briggs were lauded by some members of the American scientific community, but they were shunned by another half for having loose ethical practices.
Two competing scientific communities develop- one centered in Germany where the study of amphibious cells has continued and one in the United States that seems to lag behind its European counterparts due to ethical challenges imposed by the American culture.
The current state of affairs with regards to cloning-
In 1983 the UN announced that further cloning research is a practice to be condemned. They put forth additional language condemning research using ‘stem cells’. Non UN nations, including the DR, have ignored the UN and cloning research is moving forward. The DR is rumored to have developed breakthrough technologies with regard to limb repair, gender science, and cell transformation as a result of their progress from 1885 to present.